An Anniversary to Remember

The Queen of Hearts
The Queen of Hearts

Three years ago at this moment I was sitting in a room in a hospital waiting.  Restlessly waiting, for the heart surgeon to stop by.  It was a beautiful cold and sunny day, just like today.  Christi was there.  She had flown in from New York City for a couple of days.  Mr. and Mrs. Burns were there. Mrs. Burns quietly reading, Mr. Burns checking his Blackberry, making sure every one was taken care of.  We were a bundle of nerves.

Lily had gone into surgery earlier that morning.  Open-heart surgery.  Not your normal lets change a valve or two surface scratching in your chest cavity brand of surgery you hear are so routinely done these days.  The doctor was going to stop her heart, cut into her heart, sow up a tiny little hole in the middle of her heart, and then close it all up in hopes to alleviate the cause of her recent stroke.

A little past 11 that morning, the doctor came in. He spoke with us and told us that the surgery had been a success. Just a short 8-10 minute operation. A routine task, for him, as he had developed this procedure. Lily would be in the ICU soon and we would be able to see her soon.

At half past noon, we were allowed to go see Lily. I still remember her laying there in the bed, with all those tubes in her. Later, as she awoke from the anesthesia, still groggy from the surgery and the pain drugs, she turned and smiled at me. I felt relief. The beginning of the road to recovery and physical healing for Lily and for us. The stroke that happened earlier that summer had been a life-changing incident. The open-heart surgery repaired that little hole, the culprit, of that devastating event. It did not stop us. We were moving on.

The last three years have been some of the best of my life. We still live with the aftermath of a stroke and open-heart surgery. This is now a part of our story. I am still amazed at her strength of will and at her courage. We were both lucky.  Living in Boston. Close to such great medical centers. An incredible support group of friends and family. But most of all, I am lucky for still having Lily in my life.  Thanks for all that you are and all you mean to me.  Besos.

If you want to know more about stroke and heart disease, please visit the American Heart Association web site. Please help stop the number 1 killer of moms, daughters, sisters, friends, and lovers in this country. Know the signs.

Thermoplasma acidophilum -a model organism to study iron stress in microbes?

Thermoplasma acidophilum. Linda Stannard, UCT/Photo Science Library.Microbes require iron (Fe) as an essential element for growth and development.  It has two environmentally stable oxidation states (II and III) readily participating in redox reactions covering a wide magnitude of biological electron transport and redox reactions including respiration, oxygen activation and binding, degradation of peroxides and superoxides, synthesis of DNA, proteins, and other organic molecules, and energy fixation pathways.  At the same time, unregulated iron uptake can lead to toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to inhibition of growth.

Microbes have evolved an iron storage mechanism used to store iron under limiting or environmental stress.  The most studied system is that in Escherichia coli which produces three structurally and chemically related storage proteins; ferritins, bacterioferritins, and Dps (DNA-binding proteins during stationary phase).  Ferritin and bacterioferritin are a tetracosameric structures capable of storing 2,500 and 1,800 iron atoms respectively. Bacterioferritin differs from ferritins in that they have an iron protoporphyrin IX (heme) at the interphase of each subunit.  Dps is a dodecameric ferritin, which is induced under stationary phase of growth or by oxidative stress.  These supramolecular structures help sequester iron in the cytoplasm and prevent toxicity of free iron in the cytoplasm.

Microbes living in low pH environments are subject to high concentrations of metals, in particular iron.  How these microbes respond to metal stress is key to understanding how organisms control energy producing metabolic reactions in the cell.  Recently, the genome of T. acidophilum was completed affording us a glimpse of the possible biochemical pathways responsible for the survival of this organism in an acidic environment, but analysis of the T. acidophilum genome did not reveal any molecular pathways for the production of known iron storage proteins ferritin, bacterioferritin, or Dps.

How does T. acidophilum manage the high concentrations of soluble iron, or other metals, liberated by its acidic environment?  Does this organism have a novel iron storage mechanism?   What are the cellular responses to stress to T. acidophilum cause by high metal concentration in the cytoplasm or by ROS?  This is one of the questions that I am trying to answer using transcriptomics to look at differential gene expression of this Archeaon under varying iron and other  environmental stress conditions.

Happy New Year

Why blog?  Why me?  With so much to see out there and all the other places to go and see, why would you want to spend your time here?

This blog is as much for me as it is for you.  I love to talk about science and life, particularly when they invovle sharing these ideas around food and drinks; and now I am placing the best of these online to share with you.  I hope you enjoy these musings and come back from time to time to see what is new and exciting.