Last Friday, Paul Allen from the Centre for Alternative Technology (CAT) in Machynlleth Mid-Wales spoke about the centers work during seminar in the Parson’s Lab. He is the CAT Development Director and co-author of the Zero Carbon Britain (ZCB) report. Mr. Allen has spent the last month traveling the US from the East Coast to the West Coast by train giving his presentation about the CAT and the ZCB initiative.
The CAT advocates for an environmental policy that integrates current and emerging environmental management practices, new technology, and education to promote sustainable living communities. Recently they partnered with University of East London to offer graduate programs in Architecture specializing in Environmental and Energy Studies, Renewable energy in the Built Environment, and Ecological Building Practices. Mr. Allen’s work with CAT and the ZCB report is providing a policy and lifestyle framework which if adopted, can lower their dependency on fossil fuels and imported energy taking Britain a long way on the road to zero carbon emissions and energy independence. Along the way, I hope they can provide a successful, sustainable environmental management model that can be used by other developed nations. If you are interested in finding out more about the CAT, make sure to visit them online.
Microbes require iron (Fe) as an essential element for growth and development. It has two environmentally stable oxidation states (II and III) readily participating in redox reactions covering a wide magnitude of biological electron transport and redox reactions including respiration, oxygen activation and binding, degradation of peroxides and superoxides, synthesis of DNA, proteins, and other organic molecules, and energy fixation pathways. At the same time, unregulated iron uptake can lead to toxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and to inhibition of growth.
Microbes have evolved an iron storage mechanism used to store iron under limiting or environmental stress. The most studied system is that in Escherichia coli which produces three structurally and chemically related storage proteins; ferritins, bacterioferritins, and Dps (DNA-binding proteins during stationary phase). Ferritin and bacterioferritin are a tetracosameric structures capable of storing 2,500 and 1,800 iron atoms respectively. Bacterioferritin differs from ferritins in that they have an iron protoporphyrin IX (heme) at the interphase of each subunit. Dps is a dodecameric ferritin, which is induced under stationary phase of growth or by oxidative stress. These supramolecular structures help sequester iron in the cytoplasm and prevent toxicity of free iron in the cytoplasm.
Microbes living in low pH environments are subject to high concentrations of metals, in particular iron. How these microbes respond to metal stress is key to understanding how organisms control energy producing metabolic reactions in the cell. Recently, the genome of T. acidophilum was completed affording us a glimpse of the possible biochemical pathways responsible for the survival of this organism in an acidic environment, but analysis of the T. acidophilum genome did not reveal any molecular pathways for the production of known iron storage proteins ferritin, bacterioferritin, or Dps.
How does T. acidophilum manage the high concentrations of soluble iron, or other metals, liberated by its acidic environment? Does this organism have a novel iron storage mechanism? What are the cellular responses to stress to T. acidophilum cause by high metal concentration in the cytoplasm or by ROS? This is one of the questions that I am trying to answer using transcriptomics to look at differential gene expression of this Archeaon under varying iron and other environmental stress conditions.
I remember the first time I visited the a TED conference (it stands for Technology, Entertainment, and Design) website. Jarrett, a good friend who I blogged about, introduced me to a video from Aubrey de Grey called Why we age and how we can avoid it. de Grey has very interesting ideas regarding the disease called aging and what modern science and engineering can accomplish to minimize and prevent the causes and effects of aging and dying. I instantly became hooked on TED!a
Since then I have become a regular visitor to the TED site, logging on and listening to talks ranging from evolution and god, to design and emerging technologies. This is one of the few places that I can go and get inspired by the stories and the vision of incredible thinkers and doers. TED expanded my view of the relationship between ideas, design, innovation, and the development of technology to benefit every part of humanity.